Asian and Jewish Americans are an example of this, where they have been victims of institutional racism (and continue to be victims of forms of racism and prejudice), but whom are harmed by affirmative action since it benefits largely black and Hispanic populations. This disproportionate effect is perverse and counter-productive considering that the intent of affirmative action is to eliminate discrimination. It is also defeats the notion of compensation for past injustices, as only some groups are compensated, while others are subject to further injury. This makes the desired effect arbitrary in practice.
University of California Berkeley example: Many have noted that on some campuses, such as the University of California, Berkeley where affirmative action was abolished by Proposition 209, Asian American students, who already face discrimination on college campuses, would be the predominant victims of a return to race-conscious admissions.